R/S Phrases

Safety at work with chemicals




Risk and Safety Phrases, R/S phrases, are formally obsolete and have been replaced by H/P phrases for labelling of chemicals. They can however be encountered in older books and on labels and material data safety sheets that haven't been updated.




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R-phrases
R1Explosive when dry.
R2Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
R3Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
R4Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.
R5Heating may cause an explosion.
R6Explosive with or without contact with air.
R7May cause fire.
R8Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
R9Explosive when mixed with combustible material.
R10Flammable.
R11Highly Flammable.
R12Extremely flammable.
R13(Obsolete) Extremely flammable liquid gas.
(This R-phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
R14Reacts violently with water.
R15Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
R16Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.
R17Spontaneously flammable in air.
R18In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.
R19May form explosive peroxides.
R20Harmful by inhalation.
R21Harmful in contact with skin.
R22Harmful if swallowed.
R23Toxic by inhalation.
R24Toxic in contact with skin.
R25Toxic if swallowed.
R26Very toxic by inhalation.
R27Very toxic in contact with skin.
R28Very toxic if swallowed.
R29Contact with water liberates toxic gas.
R30Can become highly flammable in use.
R31Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.
R32Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas.
R33Danger of cumulative effects.
R34Causes burns.
R35Causes severe burns.
R36Irritating to eyes.
R37Irritating to respiratory system.
R38Irritating to skin.
R39Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
R40Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R41Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R42May cause sensitization by inhalation.
R43May cause sensitization by skin contact.
R44Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.
R45May cause cancer.
R46May cause heritable genetic damage.
R47(Obsolete) May cause deformities.
(This R-phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
R48Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
R49May cause cancer by inhalation.
R50Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
R51Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R52Harmful to aquatic organisms.
R53May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R54Toxic to flora.
R55Toxic to fauna.
R56Toxic to soil organisms.
R57Toxic to bees.
R58May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.
R59Dangerous for the ozone layer.
R60May impair fertility.
R61May cause harm to the unborn child.
R62Possible risk of impaired fertility.
R63Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
R64May cause harm to breastfed babies.
R65Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
R66Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R67Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R68Possible risks of irreversible effects.

Combinations of R phrases
R14/15Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases.
R15/29Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gas.
R20/21Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R20/21/22Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R20/22Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
R21/22Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R23/24Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R23/24/25Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R23/25Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R24/25Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R26/27Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R26/27/28Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R26/28Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R27/28Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R36/37Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
R36/37/38Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
R36/38Irritating to eyes and skin.
R37/38Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R39/23Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
R39/23/24Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R39/23/24/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/23/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R39/24Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R39/24/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/25Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
R39/26Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
R39/26/27Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R39/26/27/28Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/26/28Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R39/27Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R39/27/28Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/28Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
R42/43May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.
R48/20Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
R48/20/21Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R48/20/21/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R48/20/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed.
R48/21Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
R48/21/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R48/22Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
R48/23Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
R48/23/24Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R48/23/24/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R48/23/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed.
R48/24Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
R48/24/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R48/25Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
R50/53Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R51/53Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R52/53Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R68/20Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation.
R68/20/21Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R68/20/21/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R68/20/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R68/21Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R68/21/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R68/22Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed.



S-phrases
S1Keep locked up.
S2Keep out of the reach of children.
S3Keep in a cool place.
S4Keep away from living quarters.
S5Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer).
S6Keep contents under ... (appropriate gas to be specified by the manufacturer).
S7Keep container tightly closed.
S8Keep container dry.
S9Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
S10(Obsolete) Keep content wet.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S11(Obsolete) Avoid contact with air.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S12Do not keep the container sealed.
S13Keep away from food, drink and animal feedingstuffs.
S14Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S15Keep away from heat.
S16Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking.
S17Keep away from combustible material.
S18Handle and open container with care.
S20When using do not eat or drink.
S21When using do not smoke.
S22Do not breathe dust.
S23Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer).
S24Avoid contact with skin.
S25Avoid contact with eyes.
S26In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S27Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S28After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer).
S29Do not empty into drains.
S30Never add water to this product.
S31(Obsolete) Keep away from explosive materials.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S33Take precautionary measures against static discharges.
S34(Obsolete) Avoid strokes and frictions.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S35This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
S36Wear suitable protective clothing.
S37Wear suitable gloves.
S38In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
S39Wear eye/face protection.
S40To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use ... (to be specified by the manufacturer).
S41In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes.
S42During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer).
S43In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases risk, add - 'Never use water')
S44(Obsolete) If you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately. (Show the label where possible.)
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S45In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately. (Show the label where possible.)
S46If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
S47Keep at temperature not exceeding ... °C. (To be specified by the manufacturer).
S48Keep wet with ... (appropriate material to be specified by the manufacturer).
S49Keep only in the original container.
S50Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer).
S51Use only in well-ventilated areas.
S52Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas.
S53Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.
S54(Obsolete) Before draining of to sewage disposal plant ask for permission of the competent authority.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S55(Obsolete) Before draining of into the sewage system or into waters treat according to state of art.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S56Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.
S57Use appropriate container to avoid environmental contamination.
S58(Obsolete) Dispose as hazardous waste.
(This S phrase is no longer included in Regulation.)
S59Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling.
S60This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S61Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / Safety data sheets.
S62If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
S63In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.
S64If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious).

Combinations of S phrases
S1/2Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S3/7Keep container tightly closed in a cool place.
S3/7/9(obsolete) Keep container tightly closed in a cool, well-ventilated place.
S3/9(obsolete) Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated place.
S3/9/14Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S3/9/14/49Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S3/9/49Keep only in the original container in a cool well-ventilated place.
S3/14Keep in a cool place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S7/8Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S7/9Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place.
S7/47Keep container tightly closed and at a temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer).
S20/21When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S24/25Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S27/28Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer).
S29/35Do not empty into drains. This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
S29/56Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.
S36/37Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
S36/37/39Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S36/39Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection.
S37/39Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
S47/49Keep only in the original container at a temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer).